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We graciously welcome you to the ninth edition of Ruwaza Journal. Ruwaza Afrika IX has nineteen papers which are either individually authored or jointly co-authored mainly by senior graduate students with their supervisors; quite a few are contributions from accomplished scholars and professorial cadre from local African universities. The edition is richly drawn from General and Applied Linguistic research, Discourse and Pragmatics, Translation studies, Rhetoric and Communication, as well as Kiswahili Linguistics. It also includes Literary and Ethnomusicological research, Art and Design innovations and creations, Philosophy, Religion and Politics, and Business and Economics.

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